Saturday, December 31, 2005

Nestorians from country to country – a jewel of pure Christianity

Nestorians from country to country – a jewel of pure Christianity

This article, from a non-Nestorian source, while with a few errors, is a very nice outline and introduction to the Nasrani Nestorian Faith.


Nestorians from country to country – a jewel of pure Christianity

(Translated off a radio program in Israel. Read by Eli Marx, an independent journalist who travels around the world writing about minorities, tribes and different ethnic groups.)

“You have probably never heard of the “Nasrani Church of the East” unless you have traveled to India or Myanmar. The Nasrani Church of the East and Abroad (also known in modern times as The Nestorian Orthodox Church) was founded in the first century A.D. by migrants who had been expelled from Jerusalem in 135 A.D. These were descendants from the family of Mary and Joseph who eventually migrated to Southeast Asia. Their church now has communities all over the world.

The Nasrani Nestorians have been persecuted in almost every country they attempt to settle and are denied their own state anywhere they travel. These Orthodox Nestorians look to their church for a quintessence of national identity.

Two years ago their church leader Patriarch Michai assisted in the purchase of land along the border between Thailand and Myanmar. This instantly gave a home to refugees from Karen, Mon and surrounding states. However as of to date no government entity has recognized their new country called Nettara, an Aramaic word meaning, "protected." In fact, the government of Myanmar has been very successful in spreading propaganda concerning their classification of the Nestorians along the border. Their campaign states the inhabitants of this geographical area are nothing more than farmers and dealers of cocaine products. Some have referred to the area as the "cocaine capital of the world" - the Golden Triangle. Those who have believed this propaganda state Nettara is a nonentity.

Traveling to Thailand three weeks ago I was able to see some of the people of the “Nestorian homeland” as they refer to it now. They have shops on their eastern border selling trinkets, wooden carvings of elephants, tigers and religious symbols. I interviewed two of the vendors who spoke broken English. I then spoke to several others in Hebrew, which they were able to understand since their national language is analogous.

The people of Nettara are real and their state is real. Their blood is real and the Burma Army has spilled it on more than one occasion. I heard stories of the Nettara people being raped and plundered by military officers from Myanmar; one elderly lady told me her grandchildren had become displaced after being kidnapped by two officers of the Burma Army. “If it were not for our Catholicos I never would have seen my babies again,” she told me.

The Catholicos Patriarch of the Nestorian Orthodox Church has recently made some minor agreements with Croatia, Armenia, Turkey, and Kazakhstan in providing peaceful refugee communities that are open only to members of their church.

History and facts tell us the Nasranis are the only Nestorian Church on earth. The Assyrian Catholics of Iraq are referred to as “Nestorians” by scholars in the West but this is a misnomer for Assyrians and they deny the name. The Nasrani Church of the East is the only church that is known appropriately as “Nestorian” but not according to the Western definition of the term.

They will continue to travel from country to country with their Nestorian missionary spirit and the world will continue to choose to ignore this great nation. What the world will miss by their preference of ignorance is alarming. For what lies within the Nasrani Church is a jewel of pure Christianity as in the days of first century Galilee and Nazareth.”

Saturday, November 12, 2005

Burma Timeline

Historical Timeline

B.C. Timeline

1000. Origin of the Burman Kingdom. Founding of Tagaung by Abhi Yaza (Raja), a conquered Sakya king of Kapilavastu ("Kapilawut") in Audh.

865. Era of King Kawza begins. Thirty-two kings follow, ending with Binnaka Yaza.

825. King Kan Yaza-dyi is established at Kale on the Chindwin. His son Umidusitta migrates to Kyauppadaung in Arakan and establishes the Arakan Kingdom. King Kan Yaza-nge is established in Tagaung.

691. Era of King Kawza closes. Era of Bodaw Yuzana, Raja of the Sakyas, grandfather of Gawdama,begins.

623. Chinese irruption into Burma. King driven south to Male. Tripartition of kingdom. Prince Doza Yaza of Kapilavastu marries the chief widow of the king and founds old or northern Pagan. Seventeen reigns follow, up to 443 B.C.

443. Two Burman kingdoms, Tagaung and Pyu (Pye, Prum, Prome ?) Prince Labadutra of Tagaung hunts the great boar, which he kills at Wettokyun near Prome.

A.D. Timeline

82. New era of Pyu King Thamundayit. [Lasts till 638.]

104.The Muns destroy Thayekittaya. King Thamundayit driven north, where he establishes New Pagan. Eighteen reigns follow.

128. Rise of Magadu in Martaban (Mottama).

223. Patriarchal See from Jerusalem transferred to "Burma" by Patriarch +Mar Yusef II

450. Burma invaded by Shan Chinese

635. Thomas Christian (Nestorian) faith introduced to China with a missionary and educational post set up.

638. Era and dynasty of King Pupasaw--the present era.

781. Reign of Catholicos Patriarch Mar Khnanishu. Kienchung Tang Dynasty. Nestorian Monument erected in China on January 7 (The Monument is ten feet high by 3,1/3 feet wide and just under one foot thick and it weighs two tons. It is made of a black, sub-granular oolitic limestone). Church of the East missionaries set up missionary and educational post in Burma.

800. Irruption of Shans into Burma.

1017. Accession of King Anawyata Minsaw the Great.

1085. Southern provinces rebel, but are re-subjugated. King Kyansitthu of Pagan builds Ananda Paya and Shwe Ku Paya.

1160. King Kyansitthu of Pagan murdered by his son after reigning seventy-five years.

1167. Accession of King Narapati Sitthu the Great. Empire established over all the kingdoms except Arakan. Embassy sent to the King of Ceylon.

1204 Burma invaded from India. Burman sovereign deposed [Kala-kya-min.] Cambodia and Arayamana invaded from Ceylon.

1284 Burma invaded by China and tribute demanded. King Narashihepade driven south and pursued to Tarok-hmaw before Prome whence he fled to Pathein [Tarok-pye-min]. Pagan referred to by Marco Polo as the capital of a great kingdom.

1300. Burma invaded by Shans. King Kyawzwa of Pagan made a recluse. China interferes on behalf of Burma and besieges Myinzaing, but without effect. Pagan kingdom parcelled out among Shan leaders. Siam recovers Tenaserim. Pegu regains independence. Prome, Taung-ngu (Paung), Myinzaing, Pinya, Sagaing, Thayet assert independence. Pagan dynasty continues in name only. Shan dynasty of Beinnaka established in Burma Proper.

1306. King Zaw-aw Thin Hmaing of Pegu recaptures Tenaserim from Siam. Foundation of chronic hostility between Pegu and Siam

1330. Tenaserim recovered and Pegu made tributary by Siam (Siamese accounts).

1348. King Sinbyu Shin of Pegu. First mention of cannon. The Mun have fire-arms.

1364. Inwa ['Ava',Ratanapoya-'city of gems'] founded by Shan-Burman King Rahula (Thado Minbya).

1385. Accession of King Yazadlyit the Great, of Pegu. War with Burma. Chinese interfere on behalf of latter. Arakan supports Burma. Peace concluded, 1421, on the basis that Prome is Burman territory.

1423. Death of King Yazadiyit of Pegu.

1438. The calendar adjusted by moving the date back two years. Nicolo d' Conti, traveller from Italy, describes Thaton as a seaport. Other travellers from the West about this period were Ludovico Barthema of Bologna, Hieronimo Adorno, Hieronimo de San Stefano and the Russian, Athanasius Nitikin.

1444. Chinese invasion of Burma repelled.

1446. Queen Shinsawbu of Pegu.

1454. Ali Khan usurps the kingdom of Arakan. Burman kingdom weakened by inroads from the North. Adventurers from Europe in the service of the rival kingdoms.

1461. King Dammazedi of Pegu. (Buddhist)

1505. Shan Swabwa of Unaung overthrows the Shan-Burman king of Ava.

1530 Five independent kingdoms_Ava (Shan), Prome (Shan-Burman> Taung-ngu (Paung), Pegu (Mun) and Arakan. Taung-ngu begins to rise in power Thohambwa succeeds to the kingdom of Ava. Massacres of yahan and plunder of zed' take place. The king assassinated, 1542. Travellers of the period,Ruy Nunes d'Alcunha, I51I. Giovanni de Sylveira (Arakan) Antonio Carrea (treats with the King of Pegu on behalf of Portugal, 1519) Odoardc Barbessa (reports the King of Pegu to be very powerful,1520) Caesar Frederick Ralph Fitch. (Memoirs, ed. J. Horton Ryley. See Jardine, introduction to Sangermano's Burmese Empire.) Soldiers of fortune_Caspar d' Cruz, Boniface Damien Giovanni Cayero and Ferdinand Mendez Pinto.

1540 Martaban (Mottama) besieged by Siam

1550. King Tabin Shwe-ti of Pegu advances on Ava, but is repulsed by a confederation of the Shans. Pagan is occupied and the other Burman kingdoms subjugated. Siam recover Tenaserim. Nawratha (afterwards called Bayin-naung [next to the king] leads an expedition against Siam with assistance of the Portuguese adventurers, Seixas and Cayero, who bring five hundred Portuguese soldiers.Bayin-naung (brother-in-law of the last king of Pegu) succeeds, under the title of Sinbyumya Shin. Thamein Taw, representative of the ancient Mun dynasty, is beheaded. Expedition to and capture of Ava.
Advance to Zimme. Shan states subjugated, excepting Theinni. Advance on Laos, as far as the Mekong. 1562, Siam invaded and the capital Ayodaya captured. Tenaserim recovered from Siam.

1575, the Shan states re-subjugated. Troops sent to the aid of the King of Ceylon. Zenith of Mun empire.

1570. Pegu exhausted and depopulated. Muslim/Islamic butchers mentioned at this period. 1581, preparations for invading Arakan interrupted by the death of the emperor.

1581. Yuwa Yaza (crown prince) succeeds.

1591. Nanda Bayin succeeds to the empire of Pegu. Successful expedition against Ava. Advance against Siam with 5000 elephants and 300,000 men. Ayodaya besieged without success, and again in 1593. Pegu drained of men and resources. The emperor gives way to senseless savagery; immolates his relatives (witnessed by Gaspari Balbi, of Venice). Massacres of the people ordered and persecution of the yahan. Taung-ngu and Arakan league against the emperor. The Siamese invader is acclaimed.

1596. The Arakanese advance as far as Thallyin ("Syriam") on Pegu channel, opposite Rangoon. Sack of Pegu. Fabulous accounts of its wealth. Independence of Ava reestablished. Siam recovers Tenaserim and besieges Martaban. Taung-ngu attacked by Prome while engaged in repulsing the Siamese. Philip de Brito [a Portuguese shipboy who grew up in the palace at Arakan] deserts the Arakanese and seizes Syriam for the Portuguese. 1600, Philip de Brito recovers Yamethin for Taung-ngu.

1607. Ava re-subjugates Prome and (1610) Taung-ngu also, and obtains the tooth-relic of the Buddha. Travellers at this period, the Jesuit Boves, Faria y Souza.

1615. De Brito captures Taung-ngu but is attacked and defeated by the King of Ava and is tortured to death. De Brito's Portuguese comrades are sent to Ava. King Maha Damma Yaza of Taung-ngu reconstitutes the empire, with his capital at Ava. The help of Portuguese galleons obtained by sea. The Siamese ally with the Portuguese. Envoys sent to Burma from the Emperor Jehangir and the governor of Bengal.

1616. The Englishman Samuel dies in Burma; his property seized but afierwards restored. The English invited to settle. English factories at Syriam, Prome, Ava, Bamaw. Disputes of English and Dutch settlers. Both compelled to withdraw.

1632. The Mun Emperor Thado Damma Yaza on the throne, with the capital at Ava; a good and wise ruler. Builds Kaung-hmudaw Paya, below Sagaing.

1648. Bintale succeeds, and is succeeded by Maha Payawa Damma Yaza.

1658. An invasion from China repulsed with difficulty.

1661. The Kingdom of Ava usurped by Prome.

1664. The Arakanese advance into Bengal as far as Dakka.

1672. Accession of Emperor Thiyi Payawa Maha Damma Yaza of Pegu.

1687. Haindyi Island ("Negrais"), at the mouth of the Pathein river, is taken by Captain Weldon (British) on behalf of the Siamese. At the bidding of the East India Company the Siamese Governor of Mergui expels British traders ("interlopers"),seventeen British massacred in the scuffle that took place. The British fall into disrepute. A French mission follows.

1688. The Governor of Pegu sends a letter to the Governor of Madras asking for British traders to settle in Pegu

1695 The Burman Government confiscates the goods of Adrian Tilbury, an Englishman who died in Burma; and the ship SS. Antony and Nicholas. Messrs. Fleetwood and Sealy deputed by the Madras Government to recover the above, in 1697. Messrs. Bowyear and Alison deputed on the same duty in 1709.

1698. Accession of Emperor Sinbyu Shin Dipata. Non-Buddhist foreigners treated with contempt, but not molested.

1720. First Catholic mission.

1733.Accession of Emperor Sinbyu Shin Dipata 11.

1738 Manipuris advance as far as Sagaing and destroy temples there.

1740 Pegu-Burman Empire again disintegrating. Pegu exhausted by imposts; even the looms are taxed. The condition of the people wretched. The Muns rise against the Taung-ngu-Peguan dynasty, march north and capture the Emperor Kaungthit. The East India Company have an agent in Pegu.

1746 A Gwe Shan becomes King of Pegu, but abdicates. Binnya Dala elected in his place.

1750 The Muns under the Yuwa Yaza (crown-prince) and Dalaban march north in great force, with the co-operation of renegade Dutch and native Portuguese.

1752, Ava destroyed, the king taken to Pegu (where he was executed two years later on a charge of conspiracy).

1754. Aungzaya of Mosobo (later Shwebo), afterwards called Alaung Paya, rallies the Burmans to rise against the Mun garrisons, which are dispersed. The Burmans march on Pegu, take the city and capture the emperor. Rangoon [Yangon-the end of the strife] is founded and Burman empire proclaimed under Alaung Paya.

1755. Embassy of Captain George Baker to Burma. See his journal (Oriental Repertory, London, Dalrymple, 1791). The Emperor Alaung Paya sends a golden letter for delivery to King George 111., but it is intercepted.

1756. Murder of Bishop Nerini.

1757. Rising of Muns. Fresh Campaign, in which Pegu is finally subjugated. The name Talaing given to the Mun race. Dalaban, the Mun general afterwards called Nawratha, enters the service of the Burman Emperor on honourabl terms. The crew of the French ship Galate'e are seized.

1758 .Manipur is subdued. A rebellion of the Talaings is suppressed.

1759 The British settlers at Negrais are massacred at the instigation of the French.
Siam is invaded and siege laid to Ayodaya, without success.

1760. Death of Alaung Paya. His eldest son Naungdawdyi succeeds, under his father's will that his three sons should reign in succession. Palace intrigues The capital changed from Shwebo to Sagaing.

1761. Captain Alves deputed on a mission to the Burman Emperor.

1763. The Emperor Sinbyushin succeeds his brother Naungdawdyi. The capital changed to Shwebo.

1765. Manipur, now the ally of the British, is overrun by Burma.

1766. Burman expedition against Zimme. Tenaserim is recaptured, Siam invaded under t command of Dalaban, Ayadaya destroyed and the country laid under tribute. The Siamese defence conducted with the help of a British privateer.

1767. The Chinese invade Burma with 50,000 men. Their army is repulsed and destroyed.

1769 The Chinese invade Burma and are repulsed again. Their soldiers permitted to return disarmed.

1771 Siam throws off the Burman yoke and recovers Tenaserim. A force is despatched against Siam, of which the Talaing brigade mutinies and invests Rangoon. Failing to take the place they retreat to Martaban.

1774. An expedition is sent against Martaban, consisting of 20,000 men and twenty-four guns, which reduces the place.

1775. The Emperor Sinbyu Shin visits Rangoon. Judicial murder of the last Peguan Emperor Binnya Dala. The Schwedagon Paya is built over, to its present dimensions, and decorated with a magnificent hti. Siam invaded again, without effect. Manipur overrun again.

1776. Emperor Sinbyu Shin succeeded by his son Singu Min. Capital changed to Sagaing.

1781. Emperor Singu Min dies. Succeeded by Maung Maung, son of Emperor Naungdawdyi, contrary to the will of Alaung Paya, under which his own third son Maung Waing was designated. Maung Waing captures the palace, murders his nephew, and assumes the empire under the title of Bodaw Paya (also called Badon Min, Sinbyu-mya Shin, and Mantaya-dyi). Commits fearful atrocities against his opponents at Paunga where he destroys the whole of the inhabitants, yahan included. Capital changed from Sagaing to Amayapoya (Abode of Immortals).

1782. Rebellion of the Talaings in Rangoon suppressed. Surgeon W. Hunter visits Burma.

1783. Father Sangermano lands in Burma.

1784. Arakan invaded and subdued. The Maha-myammuni image brought to Amayapoya (cf. B.C. 150 and A.D. 1017) Arakanese take refuge in British Chittagong and from thence harass the Burmans.

1785. Expedition made against Junkseylon, without success.

1786. Siam invaded without success.

1787. Invasion from Siam repulsed.

1790. Tenaserim recaptured from Siam.

1793. Punitive expedition sent against the Arakanese refugees in Chittagong.

1795. Captain Michael Symes (see his work) sent on a mission to the Emperor of Burma by the Governor- General of India. Burma contends for an envoy from the King of England, on the precedent of the. envoy [Lord Macartney] sent to the empire of China. Efforts to negotiate a commercial treaty unsuccessful. Subsequent envoys-Captain Cox. 1803, Lieut. Canning,1811.
1803. The Amayapoya gaing of Burman yahan in Ceylon, protests against the intrusion of caste ideas in the Thinga there.

1804. Karen Christian congregation established.

1811. The filibuster Chin Byan overruns Arakan from the base of British Chittagong.

1813. Burman embassy to the Governor-General of India. Bible society work begins in Burma.

1817. The Burman government intrigues with the Mahrattas.

1819. The Emperor Bodaw Paya is succeeded by his grandson Badyidaw. Capital changed to Ava, 1823. Troubles with Munipur; the Raja erects a royal pyatthat over his residence. The British arm the Manipuris.

1823. Outrage committed by the Burman government on the British outpost at Shahpuri island, at Naf, Arakan. Burma warned by the British that war may ensue. The Burmans in reply advance to Kachar.

1824 (5th March). British declare war and land their forces. Burman resistance broken, not without aid of the Talaings, on the fall of the able General Maha Bandtila (24th April, 1825) Cost to British, 4000 men and 5 million pounds. Arakan, Martaban and Tenaserim provinces annexed. Indemnity of 1,000,000 rupees imposed on Burma, and a treaty of commerce exacted

1827. Talaing rising in Rangoon. Mission of Captain Crawfurd to Ava (see his work).

1829. Inroads made on British territory by Burman brigands, from the base of Martaban. Martaban government bound down by British to restrain Burman subjects

1837. King Badyidaw deposed and his son Thayawadi Min proclaimed king in Burma. Capital, Kyaummyaung and later Amayapoya. The reign disfigured by barbarities. 1841, the king visits Rangoon.

1845. King Thayawadi deposed and his son Pagan Min proclaimed. Massacres at the palace.

1851 Extortions practiced by the government of Rangoon, and the British traders Lewis and Sheppard ill-treated.

1852. Second British war, which lasts nearly twelve months. Pegu annexed; British Burma Commission organised by Colonel (afterwards Sir) Arthur Phayre, the first Chief Commissioner. Brigandage becomes rife, but is suppressed by degrees.

1853. King Pagan Min deposed and his son Mindon Min proclaimed in Burma.

1855. Mission of Capt. Henry Yule to Ava (see his work).

1857. The Burman capital changed to Mandalay.

1862. A fresh commercial treaty with Burma negotiated by Colonel Phayre.

1866. The rebellion headed by the Myin-Myinghndaing princes, quelled, with the assistance of the British. Embassy of the King of Burma to the Queen of England.

1872. Death of King Mindon Min. Accession of his son Thibaw Min. The young king a puppet in the hands of evil ministers. Massacres at the palace.

1878. Massacres in the jail and atrocities at the palace. Disorganization of the state. Approaches made by the Burman government to the French. Third British war. Burman resistance nominal only. The Burman government overthrown, the king deported and the country incorporated in the Indian Empire.

1885-87 Local outbreaks of resistance and general revival of brigandage, which are gradually suppressed.

1899. Dr Arthur Carson and his wife Laura, first arrived in Hakha from the United States (March 15).

1947. Burma independence.

1955. Dr Vum Ko Hau served as Ambassador for Burma to 1977

1965. Bible society founded in Burma.

1978. Bible Society of Myanmar publishes the Hakha Bible.

2003. 1000 Burmese Christians re-establish the Jerusalem Church in Burma and along the border of Thailand. Believers from Israel move into the area and in Laos to assist.

2004. Ecclesistical territory secured by Church of Jerusalem encompassing several refugee camps, people call it "Kingdom of Nettara" along the Western border of Thailand. 25,000 merge on this area into camps. Nasranis and some Assyrians in Iraq safely transported to the area for political asylum.

UPDATED: 2006. Christian churches in Burma urge Burma junta to stop persecutions

Some information above based on Chronology of the History of Burma Compiled from Spearman's Gazetteer of British Burma and Phayre's History of Burma.

Tuesday, August 30, 2005

Burmese Christians Seek Refuge in New Kingdom on Western Border of Thailand

Burmese Christians Seek Refuge in New Kingdom on Western Border of Thailand

Source: Baptist World Missions Association - USA to China

Up to a million people have fled their homes in eastern Burma in a crisis the world has largely ignored. Burma's refusal to release Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest, and the boycotting of the constitutional convention this month by the main opposition, has thrust Burma into the spotlight again. But unseen and largely unremarked is the ongoing harrowing experience of hundreds of thousands of people in eastern Burma, hiding in the jungle or trapped in army-controlled relocation sites. Others are in refugee camps on the Thai-Burmese border. These people are victims in a counterinsurgency war in which they are the deliberate targets.

As members of Burma's ethnic minorities - which make up 40 per cent of the population - they are trapped in a conflict between the Burmese army and ethnic minority armies. Surviving on caches of rice hidden in caves, or on roots and wild foods, families in eastern Burma face malaria, landmines, disease and starvation. They are hunted like animals by army patrols and starved into surrender.

In interviews... refugees told Christian Aid of murder and rape, the torching of villages and shooting of family members as they lay huddled together in the fields. They recalled farmers who had been blown up by landmines laid by the army around their crops. This report, based on personal testimonies from refugees, tells the story of Burma's humanitarian crisis.

On the brink of the Burmese government's announcement of a 'roadmap to democracy' for a new constitution, Burma's Dirty War argues that any new political settlement must include the crisis on the country's eastern borders. Burma's refusal to free Aung San Suu Kyi promises more intransigence and an even slower pace of change - with predictable human costs. This report calls on the UK and Irish governments, the EU and the UN to use what opportunity remains from the roadmap to democracy to press for an end to the conflict in negotiations with ethnic minorities. It also argues that the UN must gain access to the areas in crisis - despite the Burmese government ban on travel there by humanitarian agencies.

Key recommendations include:

* that the Burmese government cease human rights abuses, allow access to eastern Burma by humanitarian agencies including UN special representatives, and engage in dialogue with ethnic minority representatives

* that the UK and Irish governments, the EU and the UN fund work with displaced people inside Burma and continue to support refugees in Thailand

* that the UK and Irish governments, the EU and UN Security Council condemn Burma's human rights abuses against ethnic minorities, demand that it protect civilians from violence and insist that Burma allow access to humanitarian agencies The report argues that governments must seize the opportunity presented by the roadmap to push for genuine negotiations between the government, the National League for Democracy and ethnic minority organisations which can bring out a just and lasting peace. (End ChristianAid newsletter).

The Thomas Christians in Burma, known as the Burmese Orthodox Church, through the efforts of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, has purchased an extensively large zone of land along the border of Thailand and Burma where it will be home to more than 20-thousand Burmese Christians and converts.

The local patriarchal leader, Andrew Yongsanan, originally from East Burma, said the land was acquired through a special contract by cooperation of three different governments including Burma, Thailand and the Patriarchate of Jerusalem ruled by Isagelos Michai Yaza from within the United States. Yongsanan told media that the new land is referred to as the "Kingdom of Nettara" under the control of the head of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem with representatives from Burma, Thailand, China and India.

Asked about... how something of this magnitude took place so quietly, Yongsanan said, "It was in God's hands..." "a short while ago." Yongsanan said, "The most important thing for us to look at right now is that God is in control and his people are in His protection."

Two hospitals, a radio station, and electrical system have been established as well as three water filtration systems throughout the zone.

The new government offers hope to those who were once persecuted by the ruthless military regime of Burma and could offer hope to others.

- Copyright 2004 by The Indian Daily Journal of Kerala, June 9, 2004. (Christian Aid Newsletter of May 24, 2004 contributed to this article)

Source: Baptist World Missions Association - USA to China